MODERN MACHINES IN AGRICULTURE
Modern agriculture depends heavily on engineering, technology and the biological and physical sciences. Irrigation, drainage, conservation and channeling are all important fields to guarantee success in agriculture and require the expertise of agricultural engineers.
Agricultural chemistry deals with other issues vital to agriculture, such as the use of fertilizers, insecticides and fungicides, soil structure, analysis of agricultural products and the nutritional needs of farm animals.
Plant breeding and genetics represents an invaluable contribution to agricultural productivity. Genetics has also introduced a scientific basis in animal husbandry. Hydroponics, a method in which plants thrive without soil by chemical nutrient solutions can solve other additional agricultural problems.
The packaging, processing and marketing are closely related activities also influenced by the development of science. The methods of rapid freezing and dehydration have increased the markets for agricultural products.
Mechanization, the outstanding feature of agriculture in the late nineteenth and twentieth century has relieved much the work of the farmer. Even more significantly, mechanization has increased efficiency and productivity of farms.
AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS
The machines are elements that are used to direct the action of forces based energy work, for his part in the agricultural, motor mechanisms used in this work lighten the production and improve farming techniques. Among the most widely used agricultural machines working in the fields mentioned:
§Tractor: is a very useful agricultural machine, with wheels or designed to move easily on the ground and pulling power enabling successful agricultural work, even in flooded fields. It has two brake pedals and is preparing to pull sledges. There are two types of tractors: the track of stability and strength, and wheels, able to travel to by road, has a higher speed than the track.
§ Walking Tractor: agricultural machine is a single axle and is operated by handles, have median motor power and strength led to horticultural and ornamental work, can work in strong fields, but is preferably used in construction of gardens.
§ Combine: or mower is a powerful engine agricultural machine, comb cutter to cut the plants mature grain and a long rake that goes before the machine and rotates about a horizontal axis.
4. AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT
Farm equipment is a group of devices designed to open furrows in the ground, shredding, spraying and fertilizing the soil.
§ Plough: agricultural equipment is designed to open furrows in the earth consists of a blade, fence, plough, bead, bed, wheel and handlebar, which serve to cut and level the land, hold parts of the plough, set shot and to serve as handle. There are various types of ploughs but the best known are:
ü mouldboard plough, formed by the grating blade and mouldboard
ü disc plough, disc concave formed by deep grooves to open
ü shallow ploughing to remove the topsoil
ü Subsoil plough to remove the soil depth
§ Drag: agricultural equipment is designed to break up the parts and parcels of land that have been removed by the plough, are composed of a frame, which can be made of wood and metal teeth and the latch that attaches to tractor.
§ sprayer: it is a farm equipment designed to spray, is composed of a liquid tank, pressure pump, cap, mouth, tank and pressure valve, belts, hose, faucet and nozzle where the liquid to spray out, is insecticide, fungicide or herbicide. The hand sprayer is placed in the back of the sprayer and this has placed in the mouth and nose a special mask to prevent strong odours dismissed by the substance that expels the sprayer will harm.
§ Tillage planter: is a machine to place the seeds on the seedbed without prior tillage.
§ Fertilizer: agricultural equipment is designed to distribute fertilizer is composed of three main parts: the hopper or storage of fertilizer, the drop tube of fertilizer and fertilizer distributor.
Packing: agricultural equipment is designed for packaging or packing cereal straw or other baled forage grasses (also called bales or alpacas).